"Marijuana can be propagated either sexually or asexually. Seeds are the result of sexual propagation. Because
sexual propagation involves the recombination of genetic material from two parents we expect to observe variation
among seedlings and offspring with characteristics differing from those of the parents. Vegetative methods of
propagation (cloning) such as cuttage, layerage, or division of roots are asexual and allow exact replication of the
parental plant without genetic variation. Asexual propagation, in theory, allows strains to be preserved unchanged
through many seasons and hundreds of individuals.
When the difference between sexual and asexual propagation is well understood then the proper method can be chosen for each situation. The unique characteristics of a plant result from the combination of genes in chromosomes present in each cell, collectively known as the genotype of that individual. The expression of a genotype, as influenced by the environment, creates a set of visible characteristics that we collectively term the phenotype. The function of propagation is to preserve special genotypes by choosing the proper technique to ensure replication of the desired characteristics."
Extract from: The Propagation and Breeding of Distinctive Cannabis by Robert Connell Clarke
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